A Set is an unordered collection of unique strings (members). You can use Sets to efficiently:

- Track unique items (e.g., track all unique IP addresses accessing a given blog post).
- Represent relations (e.g., the set of all users with a given role).
- Perform common set operations such as intersection, unions, and differences.

## Basic commands

`SADD`

adds a new member to a set.`SREM`

removes the specified member from the set.`SISMEMBER`

tests a string for set membership.`SINTER`

returns the set of members that two or more sets have in common (i.e., the intersection).`SCARD`

returns the size (a.k.a. cardinality) of a set.

See the complete list of set commands.

## Examples

- Store the sets of bikes racing in France and the USA. Note that if you add a member that already exists, it will be ignored.

```
127.0.0.1:6379> SADD bikes:racing:france bike:1
(integer) 1
127.0.0.1:6379> SADD bikes:racing:france bike:1
(integer) 0
127.0.0.1:6379> SADD bikes:racing:france bike:2 bike:3
(integer) 2
127.0.0.1:6379> SADD bikes:racing:usa bike:1 bike:4
(integer) 2
```

- Check whether bike:1 or bike:2 are racing in the US.

```
127.0.0.1:6379> SISMEMBER bikes:racing:usa bike:1
(integer) 1
127.0.0.1:6379> SISMEMBER bikes:racing:usa bike:2
(integer) 0
```

- Which bikes are competing in both races?

```
127.0.0.1:6379> SINTER bikes:racing:france bikes:racing:usa
1) "bike:1"
```

- How many bikes are racing in France?

```
127.0.0.1:6379> SCARD bikes:racing:france
(integer) 3
```

## Tutorial

The `SADD`

command adds new elements to a set. It's also possible
to do a number of other operations against sets like testing if a given element
already exists, performing the intersection, union or difference between
multiple sets, and so forth.

```
127.0.0.1:6379> SADD bikes:racing:france bike:1 bike:2 bike:3
(integer) 3
127.0.0.1:6379> SMEMBERS bikes:racing:france
1) bike:3
2) bike:1
3) bike:2
```

Here I've added three elements to my set and told Valkey to return all the elements. There is no order guarantee with a set. Valkey is free to return the elements in any order at every call.

Valkey has commands to test for set membership. These commands can be used on single as well as multiple items:

```
127.0.0.1:6379> SISMEMBER bikes:racing:france bike:1
(integer) 1
127.0.0.1:6379> SMISMEMBER bikes:racing:france bike:2 bike:3 bike:4
1) (integer) 1
2) (integer) 1
3) (integer) 0
```

We can also find the difference between two sets. For instance, we may want to know which bikes are racing in France but not in the USA:

```
127.0.0.1:6379> SADD bikes:racing:usa bike:1 bike:4
(integer) 2
127.0.0.1:6379> SDIFF bikes:racing:france bikes:racing:usa
1) "bike:3"
2) "bike:2"
```

There are other non trivial operations that are still easy to implement
using the right Valkey commands. For instance we may want a list of all the
bikes racing in France, the USA, and some other races. We can do this using
the `SINTER`

command, which performs the intersection between different
sets. In addition to intersection you can also perform
unions, difference, and more. For example
if we add a third race we can see some of these commands in action:

```
127.0.0.1:6379> SADD bikes:racing:france bike:1 bike:2 bike:3
(integer) 3
127.0.0.1:6379> SADD bikes:racing:usa bike:1 bike:4
(integer) 2
127.0.0.1:6379> SADD bikes:racing:italy bike:1 bike:2 bike:3 bike:4
(integer) 4
127.0.0.1:6379> SINTER bikes:racing:france bikes:racing:usa bikes:racing:italy
1) "bike:1"
127.0.0.1:6379> SUNION bikes:racing:france bikes:racing:usa bikes:racing:italy
1) "bike:2"
2) "bike:1"
3) "bike:4"
4) "bike:3"
127.0.0.1:6379> SDIFF bikes:racing:france bikes:racing:usa bikes:racing:italy
(empty array)
127.0.0.1:6379> SDIFF bikes:racing:france bikes:racing:usa
1) "bike:3"
2) "bike:2"
127.0.0.1:6379> SDIFF bikes:racing:usa bikes:racing:france
1) "bike:4"
```

You'll note that the `SDIFF`

command returns an empty array when the
difference between all sets is empty. You'll also note that the order of sets
passed to `SDIFF`

matters, since the difference is not commutative.

When you want to remove items from a set, you can use the `SREM`

command to
remove one or more items from a set, or you can use the `SPOP`

command to
remove a random item from a set. You can also *return* a random item from a
set without removing it using the `SRANDMEMBER`

command:

```
127.0.0.1:6379> SADD bikes:racing:france bike:1 bike:2 bike:3 bike:4 bike:5
(integer) 5
127.0.0.1:6379> SREM bikes:racing:france bike:1
(integer) 1
127.0.0.1:6379> SPOP bikes:racing:france
"bike:3"
127.0.0.1:6379> SMEMBERS bikes:racing:france
1) "bike:2"
2) "bike:4"
3) "bike:5"
127.0.0.1:6379> SRANDMEMBER bikes:racing:france
"bike:2"
```

## Limits

The max size of a Set is 2^32 - 1 (4,294,967,295) members.

## Performance

Most set operations, including adding, removing, and checking whether an item is a set member, are O(1).
This means that they're highly efficient.
However, for large sets with hundreds of thousands of members or more, you should exercise caution when running the `SMEMBERS`

command.
This command is O(n) and returns the entire set in a single response.
As an alternative, consider the `SSCAN`

, which lets you retrieve all members of a set iteratively.